The quotes below are from medical textbooks, peer-reviewed articles, legal cases, and other publications. Each quote represents the view that fertilization is the ontogenetic starting point of a human’s life, which means that all human zygotes, embryos, and fetuses are biological humans.

Citations and links to these quotes are also available on “THE REPORT” page in the menu above and the sources can be found on the following pages:

Scientific Sources

Legal Sources

Pro-Life Sources

Pro-Choice Sources

Additional Sources